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Foot & Ankle

  • Hallux Rigidus

    Introduction Hallux rigidus is a degenerative arthritis that affects the large joint at the base of the big toe (Fig.1). Degenerative arthritis results from wear and tear on the joint surface over time. The condition may also follow an injury to the joint

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  • Osteochondritis Dissecans of the Ankle

    Introduction Osteochondritis dissecans is a condition that causes ankle pain and stiffness (Fig. 1). Osteochondritis dissecans can affect all age groups and usually follows a twisting injury to the ankle such as an ankle sprain. Osteochondritis dissecans

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  • Plantar Fasciitis

    Introduction Plantar fasciitis, sometimes called a heel spur, is a condition that causes pain on the bottom of the heel when putting weight on the foot. There can be many underlying causes of heel pain, and sometimes finding the precise reason for the pain

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  • Achilles Tendonitis and Achilles Tendon Rupture

    Introduction Problems that affect the Achilles tendon (Fig. 1) are common among active middle-aged people. These problems cause pain at the back of the calf and may result in a rupture of the Achilles tendon in severe cases.

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  • Claw Toes and Hammertoes

    Introduction Claw toe and hammertoe conditions are fairly common in cultures that wear shoes. In most cases, these problems can be traced directly to ill-fitting shoes. Anatomy The four smaller toes of each foot contain three bones (phalanges) and three

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